Equipment Financing Specialist – Canadian Leasing Solutions

Equipment Financing in Canada is a specialized type of financing. Lease financing on its own goes back hundreds of years and is a widely accepted financing tool. Major companies in Canada utilize lease financing, why shouldn’t your firm.

Lease financing covers all sorts of equipment – that includes production equipment, transportation equipment, machine tools, computers, etc. In general most Canadian banks do not offer lease financing, although two of the Chartered banks have dedicated lease operations but require a very high quality credit quality.

You should consider leasing because it’s a simple to arrange financing agreement between yourself, your vender of the equipment, and the lessor. Leasing should not be considered complicated, however Canadian leasing practices and the parties that participate are much different than in the U.S…. It benefits Canadian business owners and financial managers to ensure they understand why leasing is so popular.

Two basic types of leases are available for the Canadian business owner – they are capital and operating leases. Operating leases are often promoted by manufacturers or vendors and they often include maintenance and insurance. You should consult with an Equipment financing specialist to ensure an operating lease is right for your firm. The essence of an operating lease is that your intent is to use the equipment, but not to own it. When you enter into an operating lease ensure that you have no intention of owning the equipment at the end of term. In this case your payments will be much lower than if your intention is ownership, and you will have the benefit of some balance sheet improvement, as this lease is not shown as debt on your balance sheet. The alternative lease is a capital, or financial lease, which denotes ownership.

We can’t over emphasize the need to work with a trusted, experienced and credible advisor in this specialized area of financing in Canada. Seek out a professional that will assist you in acquiring the equipment you need and answer any questions you have about the proper rate, term and structure that your firm deserves based on overall credit and asset quality. Equipment can be new or used, and a good lease financing specialize will be pleased to assist you in maximizing the benefits of lease financing, which include:

- Better use of working capital
- Often cheaper than a term loan
- Wont restrict your current banking arrangements
- Payment flexibility
- Fixed rate financing in today’s low interest rate environment.

Specialists in any industry are a benefit. Consult a lease financing specialist for your asset acquisition needs.

International Banking – Essential for Globalization of Businesses

International banking refers to the banking services that cover a wide array of topics. It provides you personal bank accounts along with the business bank accounts also. An important feature of international banking is foreign currency services. This is a very useful feature for the people who need to deal in different currencies. You can make transactions in dollars, euro or Swiss franc.

Getting Expert Advice

Another useful service that you get from international banking organizations is traveler’s checks. All of us know the importance of traveler’s check during the traveling period. Not only can you open a foreign currency account but you can also seek help from experts regarding the international trade such as import and export of goods.

International banking institutes have investment consultants that can guide you on how to improve international trade. You can manage your bank accounts in foreign countries without any trouble. It has many other benefits also associated with it. For example, you can save a great amount of money because of lower or no taxes at all. It definitely gives you an edge over your competitors.

Globalization is the mantra today. Every business owner whether he is running a small business or big business wishes to expand his or her business beyond the boundaries of nations. International banking is a necessary tool to globalize your business. You cannot underestimate this feature because you cannot grow fast without crossing the geographical boundaries.

When you expand your business in several countries you need an effective system to manage your finances. International banking organizations offer you just the right kind of services that you need as a multinational business owner. International banks have branches in many different countries. This gives you the liberty of making payments in any of these countries. Moreover, you can get the payment in local currency saving a big amount on transactional fees.

The relations between the countries and international scenario make a huge impact on international trade. International banking services too cannot remain unaffected by the political developments at the international level. That is why international banks have to observe keenly not only the economic changes but political changes as well.

Perform a Thorough Research

So, it is well-established fact now that you need international banking services to globalize business. However, you should not select any international bank in a hurry. Perform a thorough research on the bank before you decide to open an account with them. You should ascertain that the bank offers reliable and stable services to its customers.

International Finance for Trade and Commerce

International trade involves international financial transactions because different countries have different units of money. When your nation wish to buy goods from other nations, they usually must pay for the goods in the currency of the exporting country. In other words, Japan will probably demand yen, France will demand francs, West Germany will want deutsche marks, Great Britain will insist on pounds, and Mexico will demand pesos in payment for the goods they sell. Foreign currencies are called foreign exchange, and they are bought and sold in foreign exchange markets, which are markets that deal in the buying and selling of foreign currencies. Some banks specialize in financing international trade, and they are the major participants in foreign exchange markets. If an American importer wishes to buy automobiles from a Japanese manufacturer, the importer will go to a bank that specializes in financing international trade, and will exchange dollars for yen.

Exchange Rates: The foreign exchange rate is the price of one currency in terms of another. For example, the British pound might be worth 76 times more in Indian money. Historically, there have been two major types of foreign exchange rates: fixed exchange rates and flexible exchange rates.

Under the fixed-exchange-rate system, the price of one currency was fixed in terms of other currencies so that the rate did not change. The advantage of such a system is that importers and exporters know exactly how much foreign currency they can purchase with a given quantity of their own nation’s currency today, next week, or six months from now. Foreign exchange markets operated under a fixed-exchange-rate system from 1944 until the year early 1970. Prior to 1971, the value of the United States dollar was tied to gold at the rate of $1 equals 1/35 of an ounce of gold. In other words, one ounce of gold was equal to $35 in American money. Since the value of other currencies was also fixed in relation to gold, the dollar price of each foreign currency remained constant.

The disadvantage of the fixed-rate system was that it did not make allowances for changing economic conditions in various countries. For example, if the developed country like United States of America was experiencing high inflation at a time when Japan or China was experiencing little or no inflation, American-made goods would become increasingly expensive in relation to goods made in Japan or in China. As a result, Japan or China would purchase fewer American-made goods while Americans would tend to buy more goods made in Japan or in China. This in turn would lead to a serious imbalance in imports and exports between the two countries.

With a flexible-exchange-rate system, the type of system under which world trade operates today, the forces of supply and demand determine the value of a country’s currency in terms of the value of other currencies. Therefore, under this system, the price of a country’s currency can fluctuate up and down daily in response to market conditions.

The supply and demand for foreign exchange usually are largely determined by the supply and demand for goods and services. For example, if United States of America importers wish to import increased quantities of goods from a country, suppose from Japan, there will be a strong demand for the Japanese yen. This could force the price of the yen up substantially unless Japan was at the same time providing a large supply of yen in order to increase their imports from the United States of America. The demand for goods and services is not the only factor that determines the demand for a nation’s currency. Political or economic instability in other countries may cause people in those countries to exchange their currency for a more stable currency, such as the dollar of United States of America. In addition, high interest rates in a particular country may cause foreign investors to convert their currencies into the currency of that nation. This happened in the United States of America during the early 1980s. Interest rates became so high in this country that many foreign investors were prompted to exchange their currency for American dollars for investment purposes. This increased demand for dollars caused the value of the dollar to increase in terms of other currencies. The “strong” dollar made American-made products more expensive in world markets. As a result, Americans bought more foreign-made products, and foreigners bought fewer American-made products.

Balance of Trade: The amount of goods and services that a nation sells to other nations, and the amount it buys from other nations, are not always equal. The difference between the dollar value of exports and the dollar value of imports is called the balance of trade. If the United States exports more goods to foreign nations than it imports from foreign nations, it has a trade surplus. However, if the United States of America imports more than it exports, it has a trade deficit.

In 1971, the United States recorded its first trade deficit of the century. In all the years since then, except in 1975 when there was a modest surplus, the United States has imported more than it has exported, and the trade deficits of recent years have been so large that they have caused major concern among some economists.

However, not all economists agree on how serious a problem the trade deficits are, or even on their causes. Some believe that, in the long run, market adjustments will correct the problem. Others are not so sure. Some economists believe that the high trade deficits are linked to the large deficits in the federal government’s budget in the past two decades. They argue that heavy government borrowing to finance high budget deficits helps to keep interest rates high and encourages foreign investors to exchange their foreign currencies for dollars. However, so many things influence the trade deficits that it is not always clear which factors are playing the biggest role in the deficit at any specific time. The one thing that is clear is that the United States must increase its competitiveness in world markets. Like it or not, the world is moving rapidly toward a global economy. The volume of international trade is bound to grow rapidly in the decades ahead. Competition is still the name of the game, but the number of players has increased.

Balance of Payments: Economic relations between nations involve much more than just imports and exports. There are many different kinds of transactions that involve the exchange of money between nations. For example, American businesses invest funds in foreign nations, and American banks make foreign loans. In addition, the United States government spends money for foreign aid and to support military personnel stationed abroad. Americans spend money for goods and services when they travel abroad, and American citizens often send money to relatives living in other nations. On the other hand, money flows into the United States from other countries when foreign citizens travel in the United States, when foreign businesses make investments in the United States, when Americans receive dividends on foreign investments, and so forth.

An Introspect and Retrospect of Global Home Loans and Finance

Residential properties are investments. Lenders provide the financing whether the case be the homeowner living in it or renting it out. Financing for these properties depend on the lender. The borrower then decides whether he can access the cheapest form that is made available to him.

Global home loans and financing establishments aren’t banks. Like any fiscal industry, they look closely at numbers. The way global home loans and finances review applications is by looking at the borrower’s businesses.

There is an assurance that every applicant will be treated with respect. Just like in a credit card application, global home loans and financing establishments are not allowed to discriminate any applicant.

Each applicant is appreciated and respected. By their approaching the global home loans and financing establishment, the industry is strengthened in a fiscal manner. Each transaction is an opportunity therefore there is the promise to provide the applicants with the urgency and services that they deserve.

These establishments will help you reduce your document loans. It will also assist you clear your borrower’s slates if you had credit problems before.

Borrowers applying for a huge amount of loan are also assisted. Also, those borrowing for construction purposes are prioritized. It is not just for home equitly loans or equity lines of credit.

The good thing about this is that most global home loans offer zero down and 100 percent financing. This helps home buyers to get their dream homes. Their offers are mostly interest only and home refinancing plus loan plans are made available for their clientele.

If the applicant is refinancing a mobile home, global home loans can also assist them. Any home loan program that has no or little down payment can be made available to purchasers who have little or no down payment. Those who have bad credit need not worry because they will also be assisted.

Now these financial institutions comprise the global financial system. These also act internationally, meaning they expand further than their national or regional counterparts.

The financing under these global home institutions are closely checked by the International Monetary Fund, as well as the Bank for International Settlements. In a way, this is a business of global financing, therefore national agencies, government departments, finance ministries, central banks and private institutions are somehow involved.

When talking about how these global home loans and finance started, it must be noted that its history is different from that of the history of money as well as economic history.

It all started in Europe where banks and financiers started a fiscal business that will not only benefit their own institution but also that of their partners. The milestones from this revolutionary idea led to the creation of reputable exchange banks such as The Royal Exchange and the Amsterdam Stock Exchange.

Later on, more notorious international institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the World Trade Organization were established. All three play a big part in global home loan and financing because they are integral to the financial system.

The International Monetary Fun records all international payments. It also serves as the lender whenever problems occur.

The goal of World Bank is to give funding and take credit risks in return for favorable terms towards fiscal development in not only developed countries but to the developing countries as well.

Finally, the World Trade Organization is the mediator whenever negotiations and trade disputes go awry.

In the long run though, all transactions that are accumulated by global home loans and financing pass through government institutions. They are also actors in the financial system. Banks, exchanges, funds and private players have crucial roles. They are closely intertwined to the banks.

The global home loans establishment may be responsible for approving applications but as money rolls in, the government and international transactions come into play. However, the global financing system has been debated throughout the years because of its need for reformation.

It has been questioned whether the billion mortgage banking industry such as the global home loan is necessary. In fact, the answer is quite obvious. Since it has been successfully implemented and has given various loan transactions, there is no doubt global home loan and financing is crucial to the fiscal industry.

What Newbies Need To Know About Investment Property Financing

Basics for Financing for an Investment Property

You have big dreams of owning real estate and retiring young. You simply don’t have the funds to go out and buy the properties in cash (most of us don’t either). This leads you down the path of financing with your local bank. Maybe you already own your own home and have been through the process of getting approved and signing the mortgage. This should be easy then right? Wrong, investment property loans are not like your traditional home loan.

Lenders are more strict with underwriting an investment property than that of a personal home mortgage. You might be wondering, but why? It’s simple when you own investment property and a personal residence and then you lose your job or things start going south financially you’re going to pay your personal mortgage before anything else in a worst case scenario. You’re not going to want to default on your mortgage, because that’s where you live!

Interest Rate

The interest rate is going to be higher than that of your home mortgage, it just is. Add 1-3 percentage points more than the owner occupied loan rate. That means that if a lender charges 4.00% interest for homeowner loans, you’ll likely pay 5-7% interest for investment loans. That’s just how it works folks. The loans are more risky, so the banks want more for them.

Credit Score

As with any type of loan your credit matters. It shows the bank a history of your previous credit experiences and basically says why you should get a loan or why you shouldn’t get a loan. Working to make sure your credit is top notch is something you need to do far before you get into the real estate game.

With investment property your credit score does not have as big as impact as it does with home mortgages. You will still have options if your credit isn’t perfect. If you score is below 740 you should expect to pay more in interest rate, lender fees, and lower LTV’s. This doesn’t mean you shouldn’t invest with a lower than 740 credit score, it just is stating what you need to expect.

Lower LTV

20% learn it, love it, live it. That’s the number the bank will want from you as a down payment for your investment property purchase. There are of course exceptions to the 20% down, however that’s what most banks are requiring.

20% is a lot of money, right? Yeah I know, but the good news is you will not have to pay mortgage insurance! Nobody likes mortgage insurance. The bad news is, that’s the only good news. Also the 20% down is best case, if you have piss poor credit expect the bank to expect more or not even look at your deal at all. As a final note, plan on needing at least three months’ payments as a liquid cash reserve. Cash reserve is important, yes you may finally have saved that 20%, but if you don’t have more than the 20% in working capital for when the furnace goes out in the first month then the bank will again question giving you a loan.

House Hacking to Get Started

The idea behind house hacking is simply to decrease or minimize your own expenses and use the spread (money you are saving) to invest into acquiring properties to rent out. Living in a nice house with an indoor swimming pool and movie room is great and all, but that house isn’t making you monthly cash flow, it’s costing you monthly cash flow.

The basic idea behind this “house hacking” mentality is to simply rent out part of your home to another person, or co-exist with another person as a roommate in your own home. Also it can mean selling your primary residence now and buying a multifamily property and living in one of the units while renting out the rest. Basically when it is all said and done you are renting what you already live in, to decrease your monthly expense to save capital for your dreams of real estate glory!

If you have yet to buy your first home, or if you want to sell your home now to get into real estate a multi unit property might be the right fit for you. By buying a multifamily home you can live in one of the units and have your tenants pay all of your expenses this is generally more appealing to most people than having someone live in their home.

Finance Measures and the Economic Crisis

Various finance measures have been implemented since the beginning of the worldwide economic crisis – most aimed largely at revitalizing dying businesses and corporations hit hardest by the repercussions. Many people have just a fuzzy idea of what the whole fuss is all about, but most of us would agree that the crisis that has exploded has had tremendous influence and effects at almost every level. Listening to the news during the height of the initial stages probably felt a little unreal, as the big, famous corporations once thought to be invincible were all suddenly declaring bankruptcy and loss.

These reports usually involve numbers and sums of money so large as to defy imagination: millions, billions, and even trillions of dollars seemed to be getting thrown around willy-nilly. The truth is, although over the course of a normal day we might not realize it, the functioning of economies and financial systems involve the trading of large and even larger amounts of currency. They only attracted the spotlight and public attention (and perhaps caused confusion) once critical levels were reached, enough for the normally distant economic sphere to intersect with that of daily life. But the first thing to realize is that the movement of such seemingly unreal amounts is, in fact, well within the normal working conditions of the market.

Now, with that out of the way, the next question would probably be what was the cause of the entire crisis anyway? What was that initial mistake or flaw or fall or “first domino” that triggered the whole tragic landslide? This is a difficult question with no simple answer. If you have been somewhat keeping up with the news, terms such as subprime mortgages and collateralized debt obligations might sound familiar. Explaining in detail the various financial constructs and processes that are involved would be a little too much, but essentially, it all boiled down to good old-fashioned greed.

The financial market revolves around the use and investment of so-called capital or money. Investors and the brokers that represent them always aim to maximize their profits while minimizing losses, all the while tolerating some moderate value of risk, depending on the parties involved. As it happened, the economy grew, and investors came to have large amounts of capital. Hence, the demand for investments also grew, especially those with high rates of return. Bankers and other financial institutions gladly created just such investments by transferring the risk on mortgages. Long story short, when the mortgages were not paid off, as they were bound to be, the whole house of cards collapsed, and many firms found themselves grinding to a halt.

The massive injections of capital therefore aim to increase liquidity, or to stimulate once again the movement of money that constitutes a properly functioning economy. These and other such finance measures are unfortunately not surefire ways to deal with the system wide crash. Still, they represent the best efforts of some of our most esteemed economic minds and powerful figures, and we can only wait and hope for the best.

Student Finance for Chinese Universities

Chinese universities have recently started to attract a lot of students from abroad. The trend began in the 1950s and recent statistics shows that there were close to 410000 students studying in China as at end of the last decade. There were students from 125 countries and regions. There are undergraduates, postgraduates, doctoral students, trainees, scholars, and students pursuing research coming to China. China is one of the attractive education hubs. Infact, statistics shows that China was the 10th most popular destination for US students going abroad and third most popular non-western nation. However, foreign students cannot be employed in China while at study. Therefore, students must be able to support themselves and arrange for student finance before enrolling in a Chinese university. If you are one of them, how do you go about getting China university student finance? Read on.

Government help to students seeking finance to study in a Chinese University

Good news is that the Chinese government is encouraging its colleges and universities to expand the scholarship amounts and widen the horizon of fellowships and scholarships to foreign students and China university student finance. They are also encouraged to collaborate with private sector and come up with attractive scholarships for outstanding foreign students.

Already the Chinese government has approved finance worth $362 million to around 350,000 students looking to study in Chinese universities since the introduction of subsidized loans since 1999. The extent of subsidy provided by the government is 50% of the interest amount which is paid by the government and the remaining is paid by the students along with the principal.

However the government itself recognizes that the percentage of students who actually got the loan approved stands at 31.2% which is low and the government would like to grow this figure. The main cause for the low percentage is attributed to the fact that the private sector banks are not too keen on providing finance to students who want to study in Chinese universities as the loans are not required to be backed by collateral. Whether loans will be given out or not is determined based on the credit worthiness of the students and the absence of collateral is a deterrent in providing finance. As of now the People’s Bank of China has appointed four main commercial banks to provide finance to Chinese students which are Bank of China, China Construction Bank, the Agricultural Bank of China and Industrial and Commercial Bank of china.

However such finance schemes which look at subsidizing interest repayments are at present only available to Chinese students who are Chinese citizens and have passed the requisite academic examinations

I am not Chinese, can I still get finance to study in a Chinese University or China university student finance?

There are finance programs available to international students who want to study in a Chinese University. One of the popular sources which the students are using today is to go to china by enrolling in an exchange program in a university that offers this option. Normally a host of universities have exchange programs going in which students from their universities visit universities abroad and students from universities abroad come and study in their colleges. These schemes exist not only for students who want to study but also for students interested in internship and working in these countries.

The main requirements of getting finance are credit worthiness, passing the requisite tests and getting through interviews and in some cases having collateral against the loan as well. However in the case of China some universities additionally put up the condition that the students should have a working knowledge of Chinese or Mandarin to be eligible.

There is a growing number of American students who are now interested in studying in China while in the past this was to gain exposure culturally and most of the students were of Chinese origin born in American the trend is changing now. More and more students are coming to China not only to gain cultural knowledge but also advance their careers professionally when they get back home. As a result commercial banks have also designed specialized finance programs with the needs of the students in mind and it is becoming increasingly easy for students to find such loans as China’s Universities are becoming popular as an international destination for further education.

What Does The Student Finance Corporation Do?

The Student Finance Corpration helps students to get loans for completing their studies. The range of loans available are for post secondary education. The eligibility and terms of repayment will differ from student to student based on their financial conditions, repayment ability, credit rating and the college that they are applying to.

This is called a secondary loan market because it does not finance the loans itself but rather acts as a conduit between lenders, students and schools. The specialty of this organization is to service loans from the Federal Family Education loan program. However, the Student Finance Corpration is just one means of getting loans for students and there are quite a few other organizations who provide loans as well

Major types of Student Finance

Student finance comes in four major forms:

Student Loans: Many students apply for federal government to finance their educations. The main student loan is the Stafford Loan, Such loans have low interest rate, no credit check and also do not require any collateral. There are two ways in which the loan is disbursed, one is when a private company disburses it to the family like the Citibank. All the loans are insured by the Federal Government against default. The second type of loan is when the federal government pays the family directly.

Parent Loans: Parents of dependent students can take loans for their children to cover their educational expenses. These are called federal Parent Loan for Undergraduate Students (PLUS) and unlike the Stafford loan these loans are not subsidized and are
charged at an interest rate of 8.5% for the loans disbursed after July 1 2006. Repayment begins after 60 months of disbursement and you can’t wait till the education to get over before repaying the loan.

Private Student Loans: Parents and students turn to Private loans for financing their education need because the federal programs are often limited in the amount of money they disburse and this gap has to be bridged by the private players. The rate of interest also is higher comparatively but there are several plans available which give a lot of flexibility to the parents while repaying.

Consolidation Loans: Student Loan consolidation is used when one or more loans taken for education purposes by parents and students are consolidated into one big loan and that is repaid instead of the smaller chunks of loans. Consolidation loans are available for most federal loans, including FFELP (Stafford, PLUS and SLS), FISL, Perkins, Health Professional Student Loans, NSL, HEAL, Guaranteed Student Loans and Direct loans. Some lenders offer private consolidation loans for private education loans as well.

Student Finance Corporation, Newark NJ

If you are living in Newark and are looking for the student finance corporation, newark nj it is known as the HESAA short for New Jersey Higher Education Student Assistance Authority. This authority is the secondary market for loans if living in Newark or any other part of NJ and you feel the need for a federal student loan. The good news is that this authority keeps on coming up with flexible and discounted loans for the students seeking loans in NJ.

For instance in the state of New Jersey the loans are disbursed by the New Jersey Higher Education Student Assistance Authority (HESAA) which is the state’s wing of the Student Finance Corporation. In the case of the New Jersey Student Finance Corporation they waive 1% of the guarantee fee from its borrowers and thus the entire loan amount is used towards education purposes.

Types of Business Finance – Grant Finance

Whether your business is small and new or large and established you will need adequate finance for the majority of projects, purchases and expansions you’re your business makes.

Obtaining the necessary cash to get your business off the ground can be a challenge and few new companies are able to finance themselves on cashflow alone and therefore need to consider gaining finance from other external sources. There are many of these external sources who will be willing to provide you with this start up finance, a few examples of these are stated below:

o Bank loans

o Business angels

o Venture capitalists

o Overdrafts

o Credit cards

o Friends and family

These are just a few examples of some of the places that business start-up finance is available from; however there is another source of business finance available that many people often seem to forget, this is grant finance. Business Grants can however take several months to process so you should always add extra time to your planning so that you get a decision on your grant application before the project is due to start.

A lot of start up companies and small businesses are often put off the idea of applying for a business grant to help them with their finances and because of this many of these businesses are missing out on a great opportunity to gain extra cash for there business; cash that doesn’t need to be paid back.

Few, if any new companies can finance themselves on cashflow alone and therefore need to consider raising finance from other external sources. If your business needs extra cashflow for a specific project or purpose then a business grant could be exactly what you need. This is because business grants are only awarded for specific aspects. So what exactly is a business grant? A business grant is when an organisation or authority gives a sum of money to your business to help you succeed in a particular project these business grants are mainly awarded by the Government at both a local and national level as well as by smaller bodies such as The Princes Trust or The Arts Council.

When you are applying for a business grant there are certain things that you should keep in mind such as a detailed description of the project, an explanation of the potential benefits of the project, a detailed work plan, details of your own experience and if possible a business plan. All of these will help you with your application process and help you to get closer to that business grant that you want.

If you are successful in your grant application the money that you receive is none repayable and you won’t have to pay any interest for it either; however you will need to carry out a significant amount of hard work if you want to stand a chance of obtaining a grant. These grants are also limited so the competition that you will face for them is intense.

Finance Series – Exploring Investor Rationality

The Efficient Market Hypothesis has been under fire since Eugene Fame of the University Of Chicago Graduate School Of Business first suggested it back in the early 1960s. The central idea behind the Efficient Market Hypothesis is the theory that investors are completely rational in interpreting and acting on market news and information (which, ostensibly, is fully revealed public knowledge).

It has since come to be known as the Theory of Rational Expectations. This rational investor behavior is factored into the value of all news and information the moment it becomes available. And it happens to the extent that “beating the market” becomes an impossible task.

The idea of investor rationality has been under fire by the few “gurus” who have consistently beaten the market since its inception. Nobel Laureate and father of Behavioral Finance, Daniel Kahneman, pointed out that the failure of the rational model is not inherent in the logic of the theory, but rather in the human psyche. He posited that nobody has the ability to simultaneously process all incoming stimuli and attain a complete understanding and mastery of that stimuli.

From the many arguments for and against the theory of rational expectations, I observed that many of the arguments stemmed from a difference in the understanding of what rationality means in the first place (indeed, that is further proof that “rational” people can look at ideas and apply their own bias and still be regarded as “rational”). If the world is made up of blistering imbeciles making irrational decisions, like those who argued against the theory suggest, wouldn’t the world more closely resemble an assembly of monkeys? Yet, if the world is made up of rational humans the way the theory postulates, wouldn’t the world be more robotic than human?

For too long, academia has debated the theory by taking sides with either the monkeys or the robots without a clear understanding of what constitutes rationality in the first place. Is the investor who rushes blindly into the stock market during market bubbles irrational? Are investors rational beings if they buy undervalued and sell overvalued stocks? Essentially, all reasonable human beings are rational! Rationality is the consistency of action based upon a set of logical variables. The issue here is that the difference in one’s level of knowledge and life experiences is the determining factor that allows for the installation of a distinct set of logical parameters and values in every human being!

This means that two human beings looking at and interpreting the same information can come to two separate conclusions and resulting actions! The result of which is a two-sided market. An investor who has lost a significant amount of money in the stock market may prefer to stay out of an overextended stock regardless of how fantastic the news. On the other hand, investors who have never been through that same life experience would simply continue to buy on the news. Both investors, in this case, are rational in regard to their own level of knowledge and experience. This explanation of rationality effectively consolidates all the differing views on the Theory of Rational Expectation. Because investors are rational, two-sided markets are created, making the overall market more and more efficient. Because investors are rational, they rush after price bubbles on the expectation of profits only to be defeated by the Law of Regression to the Mean.

Being greedy is a rational response to one’s needs and wants and being fearful is a rational response to one’s past sufferings. The driving factors of Greed and Fear are also rational expressions! Contrarians who take positions against the market are rationally expressing their expectations that markets eventually turn against the prevailing trend. Trend followers who take positions along with market trends are rationally expressing their belief in that trend continuing into the foreseeable future. Both create a two-sided market for each other, driving the overall market towards more and more efficiency.

However, this explanation of rationality completely nullifies the part in the theory that states that “rational investors should act in a similar fashion in response to the same news”. Because there is no way of measuring or predicting whether or not there will be more decisions of rational buying or rational selling in response to new information, nobody can predict market movement with any moral certainty. Although not attributed to random behavior, the unpredictable nature of the market has more cause and effects than the theory itself can explain.

In summation, any argument to explain market behavior through the notion of rationality has limited application in reality. As investors in the stock markets, our understanding that the markets cannot be predicted and the set-up of realistic stop loss points in preparation for worst-case outcomes and hedging portfolios using stock options, are the most rational actions that can be taken. As behavioral finance suggests, everyone makes the best of a bad situation and the situation in the stock market has never been ideal for anyone.